2. Career support
5. Employee empowerment
7. Human resource information system (HRIS)
8. Job rotation
9. Learning organization
10. Psychological contract
1. 学徒制 2. 职业支持 3. 外包 4. 数据库 5. 员工授权 6. 目标 7. 人力资源信息系统 8. 工作轮换 9. 学习型组织 10. 心理契约 11. Wage and salary survey 12. Task analysis 13. Recruitment
14. Performance management 15. Job enrichment
A.feedback B.benchmarking C.rewards
D.Human resource management E.benefit F.on-the-job
G. performance H.downsizing I. Direct cost J. output
1. refers to the practices and policies you need to carry out the people or personnel aspects of your management job.
2. Labor turnover rates provide a valuable means of the effectiveness of HR policies and practices in organizations.
3. Labor turnover can be costly. of recruiting and training replacements should be considered.
4. Business process re-engineering techniques are deployed as instruments for .
5. Evaluations also fulfill the purpose of providing to employees on how the organization views their performance.
6. The of the job analysis should be a training or learning specification.
7. Coaching is a personal technique designed to develop individual skills, knowledge, and attitudes.
8. Extrinsic include direct compensation, indirect compensation, and nonfinancial rewards.
9. Flexible benefits allow employees to pick and choose from among a menu of options.
10. China’s economic reformers have used material incentives in order to stimulate .
1.D 2.B 3.I 4.H 5.A 6.J 7.F 8.C 9.E 10.G
1. The process of helping redundant employees to find other work or start new careers is .
2. focus the evaluator’s attention on those behaviors that are key in making the difference between executing a job effectively or ineffectively.
A. The group order ranking
B. Written essay
C. The individual ranking
D. Critical incidents
3. The plan should include plans for attracting good candidates by ensuring that the organization will become an ‘employer of choice’.
4. Organizational and corporate plans indicate the direction in which the organization is going.
5. aims to broaden experience by moving people from job to job or department to department.
B. Job rotation
6. .HR planning is .
A. a technique that identifies the critical aspects of a job
B. the process of determining the human resources required by the organization to achieve its strategic goals
C. the process of setting major organizational objectives and developing comprehensive plans to achieve these objectives
D. the process of determining the primary direction of the firm
7. Career development programs benefit organizations in all of the following ways except .
A.Giving managers more control over their subordinates
B.Giving managers increased skill in managing their own careers
C.Providing greater retention of valued employees
D.Giving an increased understanding of the organization
8. The area from which employers obtain certain types of workers is known as the .
A. labor market
C. recruiting area
D. supply region
9. A set of standards of acceptable conduct and moral judgment is known as .
10. Hiring someone outside the company to perform tasks that could be done internally is known as .
D. employee leasing
1.B 2.D 3.C. 4.A 5.B. 6.B. 7.A 8.A 9.B 10.C
The context for obtaining the people required will be the labor markets in which the organization is operating which are:
1. The internal labor market- the stocks and flows of people within the organization who can be promoted, trained, or re-deployed to meet future needs.
2. The external labor marker- the external local, regional, national and international markets from which different sorts of people can be recruited. There are usually a number of markets, and the labor supply in these markets may vary considerably. Likely shortages will need to be identified so that steps can be taken to deal with them, for example by developing a more attractive ‘employment proposition’.
As part of the human resource planning process, an organization may have to formulate ‘make or buy’ policy decisions. A ‘make’ policy means that organization prefers to recruit people at a junior level or as trainee, and rely mainly on promotion from within and training programs to meet future needs. A ‘buy’ policy means that more reliance will be placed on recruiting from outside- ‘bringing fresh blood into the organization’. In practice, organizations tend to mix the two choices together to varying degrees, depending on the situation of the firm and the type of people involves. A highly entrepreneurial company operating in the turbulent conditions, or one which has just started up, will probably rely almost entirely on external recruitment. When dealing with knowledge workers, there may be little choice—they tend to be much more mobile, and resourcing strategy may have to recognize that external recruitment will be the main source of supply. Management consultancies typically fall into this category. Firms which can predict people requirements fairly and accurately may rely more on developing their own staff once they have been recruited.
1. A ‘make’ policy means that organization prefers to promote people from
A. regional labor market
B. national labor market
C. internal labor market
D. international labor market
2.According to the passge, management consultancies .
A.are less mobile than people at a junior level
B.should be recruited from external labor market
C.should be promoted from within the organization
D.are not knowledge workers
3. If a firm can predict people requirements fairly accurately, it may not
A.develop their own staff
B.formulate training programs
C.promote people from within the organization
D.rely more on recruiting from outside
4. ‘Make or buy’ policy decision is a part of .
A.human resource planning
B.training and development
5.The best title of this passage is .
A.The organizational context of human resource planning
B.Aims of human resource planning
C.The labor market context for human resource planning
D.Limitations of human resource planning
1.C 2.B 3.D 4.A 5.C
Wlaters (1983) identifies nine sources of information which help to identify training priorities. These are:
1. Organizational goals and corporate plans which indicate the direction in which the organization is going and, therefore, major training priorities.
2. Human resource and succession planning which provides information on future skill requirements and management training needs.
3. Personnel statistics on, for example, labor turnover, which highlight HR issues which might be addressed by training.
4. Exit interviews which might suggest deficiencies in training arrangements.
5. Consultation with senior managers which obtains opinions on training needs from key decision makers.
6. Data on productivity, quality and performance which show where there are any gaps between expectations and results or negative trends, and therefore suggest training needs.
7. Departmental layout changes which provide information about future developments and related training needs.
8. Management requests for training which set out perceived needs.
9. Knowledge of financial plans which determine whether the funds will be available for training, and may encourage fresh approaches if resources are limited.
Two other sources not directly mentioned by Walters are plans for introducing new technology or developing IT systems, and marketing plans which indicate where new skills are required to market new products or services, use different selling techniques or operate in new territories.
1.According to Wlaters, is (are) major training priorities.
A. human resource and succession planning
B. personnel statistics
C. exit interviews
D. organizational goals and corporate plans
2. Human resource and succession planning provides information on .
A. the direction in which the organization is going
B. future skill requirements and management training needs
C. deficiencies in training arrangements
D. any gaps between expectations and results or negative trends
3. The following sources of information which help to identify training priorities are mentioned by Wlaters except .
A. marketing plans
B. departmental layout changes
C. data on productivity, quality and performance
D. consultation with senior managers
4.According to the passage, the following statements are true except
A. Departmental layout changes provide information about future developments and related training needs.
B. Exit interviews highlight HR issues which might be addressed by training.
C. Data on productivity, quality and performance show where there are any gaps between expectations and results or negative trends.
D. Marketing plans indicate where new skills are required to market new products or services.
5.The main topic about this passage is illustrating .
A. sources of information which provide information on management training needs
B. sources of information of major training priorities
C. sources of information which help to identify training priorities
D. sources of information which provide information about future developments and related training needs.
1.D 2.B 3.A 4.B 5.C
2. Assessment center
3. Cultural shock
5. Hourly work
6. Internship programs
7. Job involvement
8. Management by objectives(MBO)
9. Pay-policy line
1. 集权化 2. 评价中心3. 文化冲击 4. 外派雇员 5. 计时工资制 6. 实习计划 7. 工作认同 8. 目标管理 9. 工资政策线 10. 自我评估 11. 360-degree feedback 12. Selection 13. Performance appraisal 14. Job specification 15. Indirect costs
A. promotion B. job analysis C management
D. Globalization E. job description F. Human resource planning
G. competence H. recruiting I. mediation J. assessment
1. International human resource management includes qualified personnel for overseas assignments.
2. Rapid through an extensive staff ranking system is seen in one company as a very important motivational mechanism.
3. refers to the tendency of firms to extend their sales or manufacturing to new markets abroad.
4. Developing a high-trust organization means creating trust between and employees.
5. determines the human resources required by the organization to achieve its strategic goals.
6. The provides information on the nature and functions of the job.
7. The halo effect or error is the tendency for an evaluator to let the of an individual on one trait influence his or her evaluation of that person on other traits.
8. Training is concerned with fitting people to take on extra responsibilities, increasing all-round .
9. A training or a learning specification breaks down the broad duties contained in the
into the detailed tasks that must be carried out.
10. In case of labor disputes between the employer and laborers, the parties concerned can apply for or arbitration, bring the case to courts, or settle them through consultation.
1.H 2.A 3.D 4.C 5.F 6.B 7.J 8.G 9.E 10.I
1. The placement of an employee in another job at a higher level in the organization with an increase in pay and status is known as a .
2. Key jobs have all of the following characteristics except .
A. they are important to employees and the organization
B. they vary in terms of job requirements
C. they are used in salary surveys for wage determination
D. they are likely to vary in job content over time
3. A process that goes beyond TQM programs to a more comprehensive approach to process redesign is known as .
A. job redesign
B. process redesign
4. The job specification describes job requirements relative to .
A. skill and physical outputs
B. skill and physical demands
C. age and physical demands
D. experience and physical description
5. When determining where training emphasis should be placed, an examination of the goals, resources, and environment of the organization is known as .
6. The job evaluation system in which specific elements of the jobs to be evaluated are compared against similar elements of key jobs within the organization is known as .
A. the point method
B. job ranking
C. the comparison method
D. the Hay profile method
7. The final decision to hire an applicant usually belongs to .
A. the HR recruiter
B. the HR manager
C. line management
8. Determining what the content of a training program should be, based on a study of the job duties, is known as .
9. Sometimes organizations provide services to terminated employees that help them bridge the gap between their old position and a new job. These services are known as .
A. downsizing programs
B. “headhunting” assistance programs
C. outplacement assistance
D. employee assistance programs(EAPs)
10. Job form the basis for the administration of applicable employment tests.
1.C 2.D 3.C 4.B 5.B 6.C 7.C 8.D 9.C 10.B
Multiperson comparisons evaluate one individual’s performance against one or more others. It is a relative rather than an absolute measuring device. The three most popular comparisons are group order ranking, individual ranking, and paired comparisons.
The group order ranking requires the evaluator to place employees into a particular classification, such as top one-fifth or second one-fifth. This method is often used in recommending students to graduate schools. Evaluators are asked to rank the student in the top five percent, the next five percent, the next fifteen percent, and so forth. But when used by managers to appraise employees, managers deal with all their subordinates. Therefore, if a rater has twenty subordinates, only four can be in the top fifth and, of course, four must also be relegated to the bottom fifth.
The individual ranking approach rank orders of employees from best to worst. If the manager is required to appraise thirty subordinates, this approach assumes that the difference between the first and second employee is the same as that between the twenty-first and twenty-second. Even though some of the employees may be closely grouped, this approach allows for no ties. The result is a clean ordering of employees, from the highest performer down to the lowest.
The paired comparison approach compares each employee with every other employee and rates each as either the superior or the weaker member of the pair. After all paired comparisons are made, each employee is assigned a summary ranking based on the number of superior scores he or she achieved. This approach ensures that each employee is compared against every other, but it can obviously become unwieldy when many employees are being compared.
Multiperson comparisons can be combined with one of the other methods to blend the best from both absolute and relative standards. For example, a college might use the graphic rating scale and the individual ranking method to provide more accurate information about its students’ performance. The A, B, C, D, or E. A prospective employer or graduate school could then look at two students who each got a “B” in their different financial accounting courses and draw considerably different conclusions about each where next to one grade it says “ranked fourth out of twenty-six”, while the other says “ ranked seventeenth out of thirty”. Obviously, the latter instructor gives out a lot more high grades!
1.Multiperson comparisons is a(an) measuring device.
2.According to the passage, there are three most popular comparisons except .
A. group order ranking
B. individual ranking
C. graphic rating scales
D. paired comparisons
3.From this passage, we can infer that .
A. recommending students to graduate schools often uses individual ranking
B. the paired comparison approach assumes that the difference between the first and second employee is same
C. group order ranking ensures that each employee is compared against every other
D. each method of multiperson comparisons can be used simultaneously
4.The following statements about individual ranking are false except .
A. it rank orders of employees from from the lowest performer up to the highest
B. the result is a clean ordering of employees
C. it assumes that the difference between the first and second employee is different
D. this approach allows for some of the employees who may be closely grouped
5.This article might be extracted from the paper about .
B.recruitment and replacement
C.training and development
1.B 2.C 3.D 4.B 5.A
Our knowledge of motivation tells us that people do what they to satisfy needs. Before they do anything, they look for the payoff or reward. Many of these rewards – salary increases, employee benefits, preferred job assignments – are organizationally controlled.
The types of rewards that an organization can allocate are more complex than is generally thought. Obviously, there is direct compensation. But there are also indirect compensation and nonfinancial rewards. Each of these types of rewards can be distributed on an individual, group, or organization wide basis.
Intrinsic rewards are those that individuals receive for themselves. They are largely a result of the worker’s satisfaction with his or her job. Techniques like job enrichment or any efforts to redesign or restructure work to increase personal worth to the employee may make his or her work more intrinsically rewarding.
Extrinsic rewards include direct compensation, indirect compensation, and nonfinancial rewards. Of course, an employee expects some forms of direct compensation: a basic wage or salary, overtime and holiday premium pay, bonuses based on performance, profit sharing, and/or possibly opportunities to purchase stock options. Employees will expect their direct compensation generally to align with their assessment of their contribution to the organization and, additionally, will expect it to be comparable to the direct compensation given to other employees with similar abilities and performance.
The organization will provide employees with indirect compensations: insurance, pay for holidays and vacations, services, and perquisites. In as much as these are generally made uniformly available to all employees at a given job level, regardless of performance, they are rally not motivating rewards. However, where indirect compensation is controllable by management and is used to reward performance, then it clearly needs to be considered as a motivating reward.
1.Rewards are often cnsidered as a function in human resource management.
2. Extrinsic rewards include the following except .
3.According to the passage, the following statements are false except .
A. Nonfinancial rewards belong to intrinsic rewards.
B. Overtime and holiday premium pay belongs to indirect compensation.
C. Employees will expect their direct compensation to be comparable to the indirect compensation given to other employees with similar abilities and performance.
D. Employees will expect their direct compensation generally to align with their assessment of their contribution to the organization.
4.Perquisites which the organization provides employees belong to .
5. The author of this passage would most likely agree that .
A.If indirect compensation is controllable by management ,then it can’t be considered as a motivating reward.
B.If indirect compensations are made uniformly available to all employees at a given job level, regardless of performance, they will lose their motivating function.
C.Techniques like job enrichment or nonfinancial rewards to increase personal worth to the employee may make his or her work more intrinsically rewarding.
D. Each type of rewards can be distributed on an individual or group, not organization wide basis.
1.C 2.A 3.D 4.C 5.B
2. Compensable factors
5. Gain sharing plans
6. Job classification system
7. Minimum wage
8. Performance feedback
9. Staffing tables
10. Wage-rate compression
1. 奖金 2. 报酬要素3. 扁平化 4. 预测5. 收益分享计划 6. 工作分类法 7. 最低工资 8. 绩效反馈 9. 人员配置表 10. 工资压缩 11. Training 12. Spot bonus 13. Pay structure 14. Labor market 15. Downsizing
A. reward B. job analysis C Human Resource management
D. ethics E. benefit programs F. human capital
G. agency H.goals I. contracts J. recruiting
1. For managers, the challenge of fostering intellectual or lies in the fact that such Workers must be managed differently than were those of previous generations.
2. In summary, is an integral part of every manager’s job.
3. In the area of and hiring, it’s the line manager’s responsibility to specify the qualifications employees need to fill specific positions.
4. HR manager also administers the various (health and accident insurance, retirement, vacation, and so on).
5. Performance evaluations are used as the basis for allocations.
6. Staff managers are authorized to assist and advise line managers in accomplishing these basic .
7. Determining the nature of each employee’s job is .
8. Laborers shall fulfill their tasks of labor, improve their professional skills, follow rules on labor safety and sanitation, and observe labor discipline and professional .
9. Labor are agreements reached between laborers and the employer to establish labor relationships and specify the rights, interests and obligations of each party.
10. In a public employment , which served workers seeking employment and employers seeking workers, employment interviewers were appraised by the number of interviews they conducted.
1.F 2.C 3.J 4.E 5.A 6.H 7.B 8.D 9.I 10.G
1. The tendency for an evaluator to let the assessment of an individual on one trait influence his or her evaluation of that person on other traits is known as .
A. similarity error
B. halo effect or error
C. leniency error
D. single criterion
2. The performance evaluation approach which compares each employee with every other employee and rates each as either the superior or the weaker member of the pair is known as .
A. the paired comparison
B. the individual ranking
C. the group order ranking
D. critical incidents
3. Determining whether or not task performance is acceptable and studying the characteristics of individuals and groups that will be placed in the training environment are known as .
A. person analysis
B. demographic analysis
C. individual analysis
D. group and individual analysis
4. The lines of advancement for an individual within an organization are known as .
A. career paths
B. job progressions
C. career lines
D. job paths
5. Freedom from criterion deficiency of performance appraisals refers to the extent to which .
A. standards relate to the overall objectives of the organization
B. standards capture the entire range of an employee’s responsibilities
C. individuals tend to maintain a certain level of performance over time
D. factors outside the employee’s control can influence performance
6. The Hay profile method uses which three factors for evaluating jobs? .
A. knowledge, skill, and responsibility
B. mental ability, skill, and responsibility
C. knowledge, mental ability, and responsibility
D. knowledge, mental ability, and accountability
7. Which of the following is not an important component of a meaningful gainsharing plan? .
A. establishing fair and precise measurement standards
B. ensuring that bonus payout formulas are easy to calculate
C. ensuring that bonus payouts are large enough to encourage future employee effort
D. depending on top management to develop the gainsharing program
8. Giving employees more control over decisions about who their co-workers will be is known as .
A. empowered selection
C. team selection
D. group development
9. Which of the following is a technique used to elicit employee views in order to make decisions and initiate change? .
A. suggestion system
B. downward communication
C. attitude survey
10. Assessing the degree to which what employees learned during the training program is translated into enhanced employee performance is known as .
A. results evaluation
B. reaction evaluation
C. behavior evaluation
D. learning evaluation
1.B 2.A 3.A 4.A 5.B 6.D 7.D 8.C 9.C 10.C
A training or a learning specification is a product of job analysis. It breaks down the broad duties contained in the job description into the detailed tasks that must be carried out. It then sets out the characteristics or attributes that the individual should have in order to perform these tasks successfully. These characteristics are:
l knowledge – what the individual needs to know. It may be professional, technical or commercial knowledge. Or it may be about the commercial, economic, or market environment; the machines to be operated; the materials or equipment to be used or the procedures to be followed; or the customers, clients, colleagues and subordinates he or she is in contact with and the factors that affect their behavior. Or it may refer to the problems that occur and how they should be dealt with.
l skills – what the individual needs to be able to do if results are to be achieved and knowledge is to be used effectively. Skills are built progressively by repeated training or other experience. They may be manual, intellectual or mental, perceptual or social.
l Competences – the behaviors’ competences needed to achieve the levels of performance required.
l attitudes – the disposition to behave or to perform in a way that is in accordance with the requirements of the work.
l performance standards – what the fully competent individual has to be able to achieve.
1. A training or a learning specification is a product of .
A. job structure
B. job evaluation
C. job design
D. job analysis
2. According to this passage, which of the following isn’t the characteristic or attribute that the individual should have in order to perform the task successfully? .
B. mental ability
3. According to this passage, the knowledge that the individual should have in order to perform the task successfully may include the following except .
A. professional, technical or commercial knowledge
B. knowledge about the commercial, economic, or market environment
C. knowledge about the job description
D. the problems that occur and how they should be dealt with
4. From this passage, we can infer that .
A. In order to perform tasks successfully, individuals need know more than their professional knowledge.
B. In order to perform tasks successfully, skills that the individual should have are built only by repeated training.
C. In order to perform tasks successfully, the disposition to behave or to perform in a way needn’t be in accordance with the requirements of the work.
D. In order to perform tasks successfully, performance standards should be based on what the average individual has to be able to achieve.
5. The best title of this passage is .
A. job analysis
B. training or learning specification
C. job description
D. performance standards
1.D 2.B 3.C 4.A 5.B
Supply forecasting measures the number of people likely to be available from within and outside the organization, having allowed for attrition, absenteeism, internal movements and promotions, and changes in hours and other conditions of work. The forecast will be based on:
· An analysis of existing human resources in terms of numbers in each occupation, skills and potentials;
· Forecast losses to existing resources through attrition (the analysis of labor wastage is an important aspect of human resource planning, because it provides the basis for plans to improve retention rates);
· Forecast changes to existing resources through internal promotions;
· The effect of changing conditions of work and absenteeism;
· Sources of supply from within the organization;
· Sources of supply from outside the organization in the national and local labor markets.
Mathematical modeling techniques aided by computers can help in the preparation of supply forecasts in situations where comprehensive and reliable data on stocks and flows be provided. As this is rarely the case, they are seldom used.
The demand and supply forecasts can then be analyzed to determine whether there are any deficits or surplus. This provides the basis for recruitment, retention and, if unavoidable, downsizing plans. Computerized planning models can be used for this purpose. It is, however, not essential to rely on a software planning package. The basic forecasting calculations can be carried out with a spreadsheet which, for each occupation where plans need to be made, sets out and calculates the number required as in the following example:
1. Number currently employed 70
2. Annual wastage rate based on past records 10%
3. Expected losses during the year 7
4. Balance at end-year 63
5. Number required at end-year 75
6. Number to be obtained during year (=5-4) 8
1. The word -“attrition” in the first paragraph means .
A. retention rates
B. supply from within the organization
C. supply from outside the organization
D. labor wastage and retirements
2. According to the passage, forcasting the future supply of people should be based on the following except .
A. forecast losses to existing resources through attrition
B. forecast changes to existing resources through external movements
C. the effect of changing conditions of work
D. sources of supply from external labor markets
3. The author of this passage might disagree that .
A. The demand and supply forecasts can be analyzed to determine whether there are any deficits or surplus.
B. The demand and supply forecasts can provide the basis for recruitment, retention.
C. The demand and supply forecasts can’t provide the basis for downsizing.
D. A spreadsheet can be used for demand and supply forecasting.
4. In a company, if people currently employed are 300, annual wastage rate is 20%, and number required at end-year is 350, then the company should recruit .
5. This passage may be extracted from the paper about .
A. human resource planning
B. training and development
C. recruitment and replacement
D. international human resource management
1.D 2.B 3.C 4.B 5.A
1. Work permit
2. Strategic congruence
3. Return on investment (ROI)
4. Personnel selection
5. Peer appraisal
7. Job satisfaction
8. Downward move
10. Critical incident method
1. 就业许可证 2. 战略一致性 3. 投资回报 4. 人员甄选 5. 同事评估 6. 调解 7. 工作满意度 8. 降级9. 数据库 10. 关键事件法 11. Action plan 12. Career 13. Employee empowerment 14. Human resource information system (HRIS) 15. Key jobs
A. competition B.arbitration C external labor markets
D. careers E. outplacement F. job description
G. forecasting H.expatriate I. halo effect J. skills
1. The analysis of the number of people leaving the organization (labor turnover of wastage) provides data for use in supply .
2. Demand forecasting is the process of estimating the future numbers of people required and the likely and competences they will need.
3. The are the external local, regional, national and international markets from which different sorts of people can be recruited.
4. From tapping the global labor force to formulating selection, training, and compensation policies for employees managing globalization will thus be a major HR challenge in the next few years.
5. The pressure for improved performance to meet more intense global
explains why many organizations are seeing higher standards for employees.
6. People also leave organizations voluntarily to further their , get more money or move away from the district.
7. Organizational release activities deal with redundancy, , dismissal, voluntary turnover and retirement.
8. Once a labor dispute occurs, the party that has objections to the ruling of the labor committee can bring the case to a peoples court.
9. A training or a learning specification breaks down the broad duties contained in the into the detailed tasks that must be carried out.
10. The is the tendency for an evaluator to let the assessment of an individual on one trait influence his or her evaluation of that person on other traits.
1.G 2.J 3.C 4.H 5.A 6.D 7.E 8.B 9.F 10.I
1. Eliminating what are deemed to be unnecessary layers of management and supervision is known as .
2. The changing environments of Human Resource Management include the following except .
A. work force diversity
B. technological trends
D. great changes in the nature of work force
3. The aims of human resource planning in any organization might be the following except .
A. Attract and retain the number of people required with the appropriate skills, expertise and competences
B. Reduce dependence on external recruitment when key skills are in short supply by formulating retention, as well as employee development, strategies
C. Neglect the problems of potential surpluses or deficits of people
D. Develop a well-trained and flexible workforce, thus contributing to the organization’s ability to adapt to an uncertain and changing environment
4. Forcasting the supply of people should be based on the following except .
A. forecast losses to existing resources through attrition
B. recruitment plans
C. the effect of changing conditions of work
D. sources of supply from external labor markets
5. The costs of labor turnover include the following except .
A. direct cost of recruiting replacements
B. opportunity cost of time spent by HR and line managers in recruitment
C. loss arising from reduced input from new starters until they are fully trained
D. indirect cost of training replacements in the unnecessary skills
6. Assessing the sets of skills and knowledge employees need to be successful, particularly for decision-oriented and knowledge-intensive jobs, is known as .
A. individual assessment
B. competency assessment
C. organizational assessment
D. job assessment
7. Which system of job evaluation is being used when jobs are classified according to a series of predetermined wage grades? .
A. Hay profile method
B. job ranking
C. factor comparison method
D. job classification system
8. The purpose of a profit-sharing plan is to .
A. allow workers to contribute specific knowledge to improving the organization
B. motivate a total commitment to the organization as a whole
C. enable workers to share in labor cost savings
D. instill commitment to the employees’ immediate work group
9. One of the primary benefits of cross-training employees is that .
A. cross-training enables individuals to exert more effort on their job
B. cross-training helps employees identify trouble spots that cut across several jobs
C. cross-training enables managers to spend less time supervising individual performance
D. cross-training enables managers to save more money in labor costs
10. Which of the following is not an approach used by organizations to try to lower labor costs? .
C. productivity enhancements
D. employee development
1.A 2.D 3.C 4.B 5.D 6.B 7.D 8.B 9.B 10.D
Although the notion of human resource planning is well established in the HRM vocabulary, it does not seem to be commonly practiced as a key HR activity. As Rothwell (1995) suggests, ‘apart from isolated examples, there has been little research evidence of increased use or of its success’. She explains the gap between theory and practice as arising from:
· The impact of change and the difficulty of predicting the future –‘the need for planning may be in inverse proportion to its feasibility’;
· The ‘shifting kaleidoscope’ of policy priorities and strategies within organizations;
· The distrust displayed by many managers of theory or planning – they often prefer pragmatic adaptation to conceptualization;
· The lack of evidence that human resource planning works.
Be that as it may, it is difficult to reject out of hand the belief that some attempt should be made broadly to forecast future human resource requirements as a basis for planning and action. On the basis of research conducted by the Institute for Employment Studies, Reilly (1999) has suggested a number of reasons why organizations choose to engage in some forms of human resource planning. These fall into the following three groups.
1. Planning for substantive reasons, that is, to have a practical effect by optimizing the use of resources and /or making them more flexible, acquiring and nurturing skills that take time to develop, identifying potential problems and minimizing the chances of making a bad decision.
2. Planning because of the process benefits, which involves understanding the present in order to confront the future, challenging assumptions and liberating thinking, making explicit decisions which can later be challenged, standing back and providing an overview, and ensuring that long-term thinking is not driven out by short-term focus.
3. Planning for organizational reasons, which involves communicating plans so as to obtain support / adherence to them, linking HR plans to business plans so as to influence them, regaining corporate control over operating units, and coordinating and integrating organizational decision-making and actions.
1. According Rothwell (1995), the gap between human resource planning theory and practice arised from the following except .
A. the impact of change and the difficulty of predicting the future
B. the dramatic change of policy priorities and strategies within organizations
C. the distrust displayed by many managers of theory or planning
D. the redundance of evidence that human resource planning works
2.According to the passage, which of the following statements is true? .
A. The definition of human resource planning is not well established.
B. Rothwell (1995) suggests there has been no example of success about human resource planning.
C. Human resource planning does not seem to be commonly practiced as a key HR activity.
D. The gap between human resource planning theory and practice is very small.
3. Reilly (1999) has suggested a number of reasons why organizations choose to engage in some forms of human resource planning, but which of the following is not included? .
A. planning has a theoritical effect by optimizing the use of resources
B. planning can be used to identify potential problems and minimize the chances of making a bad decision
C. planning involves understanding the present in order to confront the future
D. planning for organizational reasons
4. About the human resource planning process benefits, the author of this passage might disagree that .
A. It can challenge assumptions.
B. It can minimize the chances of making a bad decision.
C. It can liberate thinking.
D. It can ensuring that long-term thinking is not driven out by short-term focus.
5. From this passage, we can infer that .
A. We should forecast future human resource requirements as a basis for planning and action.
B. There is no evidence that human resource planning works.
C. There is no use for human resource planning.
D. There is no organizational reasons for human resource planning.
1.D 2.C 3.A 4.B 5.A
The criteria or criterion that management chooses to evaluate, when appraising employee performance, will have a major influence on what employees do. The three most popular sets of criteria are individual task outcomes, behaviors, and traits.
If ends count, rather than means, then management should evaluate an employee¢s task outcomes. Using task outcomes, a plant manager could be judged on criteria such as quantity produced, scrap generated, and cost per unit of production. Similarly, a salesperson could be assessed on overall sales volume in his or her territory, dollar increase in sales, and number of new accounts established.
In many cases, it’s difficult to identify specific outcomes that can be directly attributable to an employee’s actions. This is particularly true of personnel in staff positions and individuals whose work assignments are intrinsically part of a group effort. In the latter case, the group’s performance may be readily evaluated, but the contribution of each group member may be difficult or impossible to identify clearly. In such instances, it is not unusual for management to evaluate the employee’s behavior. Using the previous examples, behaviors of a plant manager that could be used for performance evaluation purpose might include promptness in submitting his or her monthly reports or the leadership style that the manager exhibits. Pertinent salesperson behaviors could be average number of contact calls made per day or sick days used per year.
The weakest set of criteria, yet one that is still widely used by organizations, is individual traits. We say they are weaker than either task outcomes or behaviors because they are farthest removed from the actual performance of the job itself. Traits such as having “a good attitude,” showing “confidence,” being “intelligent” or “friendly”, “looking busy”, or possessing “a wealth of experience” may or may not be highly correlated with positive task outcomes, but only the naive would ignore the reality that such traits are frequently used in organizations as criteria for assessing an employee’s level of performance.
1. According to the passage,which of the following is not the criteria that management chooses to evaluate employees’ performance? .
A. individual task outcomes
B. individual behaviors
C. individual skills
D. individual traits
2. Criteria of task outcomes which can be used for a plant manager include the following except .
A. quantity produced
B. dollar increase in sales
C. scrap generated
D. cost per unit of production
3. Behaviors of salesperson that could be used for performance evaluation purpose might include .
A. promptness in submitting his or her monthly reports
B. the leadership style that the manager exhibits
C. number of new accounts established
D. average number of contact calls made per day
4. Traits that could be used for performance evaluation purpose might include the following except .
A. having “a good apperance”
B. showing “confidence”
C. being “intelligent” or “friendly”
D. possessing “a wealth of experience”
5. The author of this passage might most likely agree that .
A. The criteria or criterion that management evaluate employees’ performance will have a minor influence on what employees do.
B. If means count, rather than ends, then management should evaluate an employee¢s task outcomes.
C. The contribution of individuals whose work assignments are intrinsically part of a group effort can be easy to identify clearly.
D. Individual traits is the weakest set of criteria that can be used for performance evaluation.
1.C 2.B 3.D 4.A 5.D
1. Assessment center
3. Development planning system
4. Expert systems
5. Human capital
6. Intraorganizational bargaining
7. Job evaluation
8. Organizational analysis
9. Peer appraisal
10. Wage and salary survey
1. 评价中心 2. 奖金 3. 开发规划系统 4. 专家系统 5. 人力资本6. 组织内谈判 7. 工作评价 8. 组织分析9. 同事评估10. 薪资调查 11. Self-appraisal 12. Output 13. Job structure 14. Hourly work 15. Centralization
A. job satisfaction B.recruiting C organizational learning
D. pay systems E. strategic plan F. wage levels
G. motivational H.needs I. performance J. productive
1. In the management of international joint ventures, Pucik (1988) argues that one of the main challenges anywhere is the capacity of the partners within the joint venture.
2. Rapid promotion through an extensive staff ranking system is seen in one company as a very important mechanism.
3. Generally money is seen as important for and retaining employees, but not as a real motivator.
4. China’s economic reformers have used material incentives in order to stimulate .
5. New labor laws permit companies to set their own .
6. Organizations are finding that IHRM activities are best handled by linking them to the enterprise's .
7. An extensive review of the literature indicates that the more important factors conducive to include mentally challenging work, equitable rewards, supportive working conditions, and supportive colleagues.
8. Employees want and promotion policies that they perceive as being just, unambiguous, and in line with their expectations.
9. The early views on the satisfaction-performance relationship can be essentially summarized in the statement “a happy worker is a
10. Giving all employees the same benefits assumes all employees have the same .
1.C 2.G 3.B 4.I 5.F 6.E 7.A 8.D 9.J 10.H
1. An interview in which an applicant is given a hypothetical incident and is asked how he or she would respond to it is a .
A. computer interview
B. panel interview
C. situational interview
D. nondirective interview
2. The desired outcomes of training programs are formally stated as .
A. training goals
B. learning objectives
C. instructional objectives
D. learning goals
3. Career counseling involves talking with employees about all of the following except .
A. Their current job activities and performance.
B. Their past career decisions.
C. Their personal and career interests and goals.
D. Their personal skills.
4. In most instances, who is in the best position to perform the function of appraising an employee’s performance? .
A. someone from the HR department
B. the employee’s supervisor
C. the employee
5. The process of determining the relative worth of jobs in order to determine pay rates for different jobs is known as .
A. job determination
B. job diagnosis
C. job analysis
D. job evaluation
6. Profit sharing refers to any procedure by which an employer pays employees .
A. an incentive based on their merit
B. an incentive based on labor cost savings
C. a bonus based on the overall productivity of their particular work group
D. current or deferred sums based on the organization’s financial performance
7. All of the following are prevalent reasons for failure among expatriates except .
A. a spouse’s inability to adapt
B. a manager’s personality
C. inability to cope with larger responsibilities
D. distaste for travel
8. Communication systems should provide accurate information regarding all of the following except .
A. business plans and goals
B. employee background and personal data
C. unit and corporate operating results
D. incipient problems and opportunities
9. Reengineering often requires that managers start from scratch in rethinking all of the following except .
A. how work should be done
B. how technology and people should interact
C. how the entire organization should be structured
D. how organizations should compete
10.The core job dimension that describes the degree to which a job has a substantial impact on the lives or work of other people is called .
A. skill variety
B. task identity
C. task significance
1.C 2.C 3.B 4.B 5.D 6.D 7.D 8.B 9.D 10.C
Human resource planning, in the broader meaning of the term, is one of the fundamental strategic roles of the HR function. HR can make a major contribution to developing the resource capability of the firm and therefore its strategic capability by systematically reviewing the firm’s strategic objectives and by ensuring that plans are made that will ensure that the human resources are available to meet those objectives. Thus HR is focusing on the acquisition and development of the human capital required by the organization.
To make this contribution, heads of HR and their colleagues in the HR function need to:
l Ensure that they are aware of the strategic plans of the business and can provide advice on the human resource implications of those plans;
l Point out to management the strengths and weakenesses of the human resources of the organization, and the opportunities and treats they present, so that these can be considered when developing business plans;
l Be capable of scenario planning in the sense that they can identify future issues concerning the acquisition, retention and employment of people and advise on methods of addressing those issues;
l Understand the extent to which quantitative assessments of the future demand for and supply of people may be feasible and useful, and know the methods that can be used to prepare such forecasts;
l Understand how to analyze the cost of labor turnover and to establish reasons for leaving;
l Be aware of the scope to deal with future requirements by introducing various forms of flexibility;
l Be capable of preparing relevant and practical resourcing plans and strategies for retaining people, based upon an understanding of the internal and external environment of the organization and the implications of analyses of labor turnover.
1. In the broader meaning of the term, human resource planning plays a(an) in the HR function.
A. strategic role
B. tactical role
C. objective role
D. no role
2. Which of the following measures isn’t the one by which HR can make a major contribution to developing the resource capability of the firm and its strategic capability? .
A. by systematically examining the firm’s strategic objectives
B. by ensuring that plans will ensure the available human resources to meet the firm’s strategic objectives
C. by focusing on the acquisition and development of the people required by the organization
D. by focusing on firing and outplacing the redunant employees
3. To make a major contribution to developing the resource capability of the firm and its strategic capability, staff of HR need to do the following except .
A. ensure that they learn the strategic plans of the business
B. point out to management the advantages and disadvantages of the human resources of the organization
C. be aware of the scope to deal with existing requirements by introducing various forms of flexibility
D. be capable of preparing relevant and practical resourcing plans and strategies for retaining people
4. From the passage, we can’t infer that .
A. Human resource planning is one of the HR function.
B. HR can make a major contribution to developing the resource capability of the firm and therefore its strategic capability without HR planning.
C. It is the task of all staff of HR to develop the resource capability of the firm and therefore its strategic capability.
D. To develop the resource capability of the firm and therefore its strategic capability, HR must be focus on the acquisition and development of the human capital required by the organization.
5. The main topic of this passage is .
A. the contribution of HR to human resource planning
B. the contribution of human resource planning to HR
C. the contribution of HR
D. the contribution of human resource planning
1.A 2.D 3.C 4.B 5.A
Job rotation aims to broaden experience by moving people from job to job or department to department. It can be an inefficient and frustrating method of acquiring additional knowledge and skills unless it is carefully planned and controlled. What has sometimes been referred to as the "Cook's tour" method of moving trainees (usually management trainees) from department to department has incurred much justified criticism because of the time wasted by trainees in departments where no one knew what to do with them or cared.
It may be better to use the term "planned sequence of experience'' rather than "job rotation'' to emphasize that the experience should be programmed to satisfy a training specification for acquiring knowledge and skills in different departments and occupations. It can be argued in support of job rotation that if it is by experience that adults learn, then that experience should be planned.
Success in using this method depends on designing a program that sets down what the trainee is expected to learn in each department or job in which he or she gains experience. There must also be a suitable person available to see that the trainee is given the right experience or opportunity to learn, and arrangements must be made to check progress. For apprentices this will mean the use of training supervisors within departments to see that the training syllabus is followed, and the use of logbooks to record what experience has been gained. The syllabus within a department should include specific assignments or projects. A good way of stimulating trainees to find out for themselves is to provide them with a list of questions to answer; it is essential however, to follow up each segment of experience to check what has been learned and, if necessary, modify the program.
1. What is the main aim of job rotation? .
A. acquire basic knowledge
B. broaden experience
C. acquire basic skills
D. move people from job to job
2. If employers want to broaden employees’ experience through job rotation, they must .
A. plan and controll job rotation
B. move people from department to department
C. move people from job to job
D. plan and controll the recruitment of employees
3. If we want to make success in using job rotation, we should do the following things except .
A. design a program that sets down what the trainee is expected to learn in each department or job
B. ensure a suitable person available to see that the trainee is given the right experience or opportunity to learn
C. make arrangements to check progress
D. provide the trainee with no question to answer
4. From this passage, we can’t conclude that .
A. Job rotation has never incurred any criticism.
B. The aim of using the term "planned sequence of experience'' is to emphasize that the experience should be programmed to satisfy a training specification.
C. If it is by experience that adults learn, then that experience should be planned.
D. A good way of stimulating trainees to find out for themselves is to provide them with a list of questions to answer.
5. This passage might be extracted from the paper about .
A. HR planning techniques
B. selecting techniques
C. training techniques
D. motivating techniques
1.B 2.A 3.D 4.A 5.C
2. Career management system
4. Differential piece rate
5. Employee leasing
6. Human resources planning
7. Job enrichment
8. Management by objectives, MBO
1. 学徒制2. 职业管理系统 3. 交叉培训 4. 差额计件工资 5. 员工租借 6. 人力资源计划7. 工作丰富化 8. 目标管理 9. 外包 10. 流程再造 11. Skill-based pay 12. Profit sharing 13. Job rotation 14. Input 15. Database
A. assessment B. benefits C job analysis
D. critical incident E. human capital F. recruitment
G. selection H.on-the-job I. forecasts J. costs
1. The provides information on the nature and functions of the job.
2. HR is focusing on the acquisition and development of the required by the organization.
3. The downsizing plan should be based on the timing of reductions and of the extent to which these can be achieved by natural wastage or voluntary redundancy.
4. Rapid turnover can result simply from poor or promotion decisions.
5. A flexibility plan can contain proposals to reduce overtime through the use of flexible hours.
6. Job-sharing is an arrangement where by two employees share the work of one full-time position, dividing pay and between them according to the time each works.
7. The plan should include plans for attracting good candidates by ensuring that the organization will become an ‘employer of choice’.
8. Behaviorally anchored rating scales combine major elements from the and graphic rating scale approaches.
9. 360-degree feedback is also referred to as multi-source or multi-rater feedback.
10. Coaching is a personal technique designed to develop individual skills, knowledge, and attitudes.
1.C 2.E 3.I 4.G 5.J 6.B 7.F 8.D 9.A 10.H
1. Questions contained in structured job interviews should be based on .
A. job analysis
B. job design
C. job specialization
D. job utilization
2. A process in which individuals are evaluated as they participate in a series of situations that resemble what they might be called upon to handle on the job is known as a/an .
A. Management training seminar.
B. Executive development program.
C. In-basket exercise.
D. Assessment center.
3. If your primary objective for a performance appraisal is to give employees developmental feedback, which of the following appraisal methods should you use? .
A. trait method
B. results method
C. behavior method
D. attitudinal method
4. Outplacement services are .
A.useful methods of attracting individuals into a career
B.designed to help terminated employees find a job elsewhere
C.rarely given to executive employees
D.vital parts of any career management system
5. Transnational teams tend to be .
A. focused on projects that span multiple countries
B. comprised of members with generalized skills
D. comprised of members from the same region
6. Which of the following compensation systems does not focus employee efforts on outcomes that are beneficial to both themselves and the organization as a whole? .
A. profit-sharing plans
B. employee stock ownership plans
C. hourly based pay systems
D. skill-based pay systems
7. The total-quality HR paradigm would likely emphasize all of the following except .
A. cross-functional training
B. team/group-based rewards
C. autocratic leadership
D. customer and peer performance reviews
8. A group of employees rotating jobs as they complete the production or service process is called a/an .
A. labor bargaining unit
B. employee team
C. training-production group
D. employee rotation unit
9. Notifying applicants of the selection decision and making job offers are generally the responsibility of .
A. the HR department
B. the line manager
C. the supervisor
D. the industrial relations manager
10. Performance appraisals are used most widely as a basis for .
A. determining training needs
B. discharging decisions
C. deciding compensation
D. directing performance improvement
1.A 2.D 3.C 4.B 5.A 6.C 7.C 8.B 9.A 10.C
The labor turnover index (sometimes referred to as employee or labor wastage index) is the traditional formula for measuring wastage. It has been described by the CIPD as the ‘crude wastage method’. It is calculated as follows:
Number of leavers in a specified period (usually 1 year)×100
Average number of employees during the same period
This method is commonly used because it is easy to calculate and to understand. For human resource planning purposes, it is a simple matter to work out that if a company wanted to increase its workforce by 50 people from 150 to 200 but the labor turnover rate is 20 percent ( a loss of 30 people), then if this trend continues, the company would have to recruit 90 employees during the following year in order to increase and to hold the workforce at 200 in that year (50 extra employees, plus 40 to replace the 20 percent wastage of the average 200 employees employed). It can also be used to make comparisons with other organizations that will typically adopt this method.
This wastage formula may be simple to use but it can be misleading. The main objection to the measurement of turnover in terms of the proportion of those who leave in given period is that the figure may be inflated by the high turnover of a relatively small proportion of the workforce, especially in times of heavy recruitment. Thus, a company employing 150 people might have had an annual wastage rate of 20 percent, meaning that 30 jobs had become vacant during the year. But this could have been spread throughout the company, covering all occupations and long- as well as short-service employees. Alternatively, it could have been restricted to a small sector of the workforce - only 20 jobs might have been affected although each of these had to be filled 10 times during the year. These are totally different situations, and unless they are understood, inaccurate forecasts would be made of future requirements and inappropriate actions would b taken to deal with the problem. The turnover index is also suspect if the average number of employees upon which the percentage is based is unrepresentative of recent trends because of considerable increases or decreases during the period in the numbers employed.
1. The aim of the labor turnover index is to .
A. measure labor turnover
B. analyze the reasons of labor turnover
C. measure costs of labor turnover
D. analyze the significance of labor turnover
2. If a company has 500 people and its labor turnover rate is 20 percent in a specified period, the labor turnover index of the company is .
3. If a company want to increase its workforce from 400 to 500 but the labor turnover rate is 10 percent ( a loss of 40 people), then if this trend continues, the company has to recruit employees during the following year.
4. Which of the following isn’t the reason that the labor turnover index can be misleading? .
A. The figure may be inflated by the high turnover.
B. The labor turnover rate of every occupation may be different.
C. The average number of employees upon which the percentage is based is unrepresentative of recent trends.
D. The labor turnover index is too simple.
5. According to the passage, the author might most likely disagree that .
A. The labor turnover index is an traditional method for measuring labor turnover.
B. The labor turnover index is commonly used because the calculation is accurate.
C. The labor turnover index can be comparied with the one of other organizations.
D. The labor turnover index can be criticized.
1.A 2.C 3.C 4.D 5.B
There are three basic types of employment agencies: (1) those operated by federal, state, or local governments; (2) those associated with nonprofit organizations; and (3) privately owned agencies.
Public state employment service agencies exist in every state. They are aided and coordinated by the U.S. Department of Labor, which also maintains a nationwide computerized job bank to which all state employment offices are connected. Using the computer-listed job information, an agency interviewer is better able to counsel job applicants concerning available jobs in their local and other geographical areas.
Although public agencies are a major source of blue-collar and white-collar workers, the experience of some employers with these agencies has been mixed. Applicants for unemployment insurance are required to register with these agencies. They must make themselves available for job interviews to collect their unemployment payments. A fraction of these people are not interested in getting back to work, so employers can end up with applicants who have little or no real desire to obtain immediate employment.
Other employment agencies are associated with nonprofit organizations. For example, most professional and technical societies have units that help their members find jobs. Similarly, many public welfare agencies try to place people who are in special categories, such as those who are physically disabled or are war veterans.
Private employment agencies are important sources of clerical, white-collar, and managerial personnel. Such agencies charge fees for each applicant they place. These fees are usually set by state law and are posted in their offices. Whether the employer or the candidate pays the fee is mostly determined by market conditions. However, the trend has been toward “fee-paid jobs” in which the employer pays the fees. The assumption is that the most qualified candidates are presently employed and would not be as willing to switch jobs if they had to pay the fees themselves. Many private agencies now offer temporary help service and provide secretarial, clerical, or semiskilled labor on a short term basis. These agencies can be useful in helping you cope with peak loads and fill in for vacationing employees.
1. The basic types of employment agencies include the following except .
A. employment agencies operated by federal, state, or local governments
B. employment agencies associated with nonprofit organizations
C. employment agencies privately owned
D. employment agencies owned by the U.S. Department of Labor
2. Which of the following statements about public agencies is false? .
A. They exist in every state.
B. They are coordinated by the U.S. Department of Labor.
C. They are a major source of blue-collar and managerial personnel.
D. They are connected by a nationwide computerized job bank.
3. About applicants for unemployment insurance, the author might most likely agree that .
A. They must register with all employment agencies.
B. They must make themselves available for job interviews to collect their unemployment payments.
C. None of these people are not interested in getting back to work.
D. Employers can’t end up with applicants who have little or no real desire to obtain immediate employment.
4. According to the passage, which of the following on private employment agencies can’t be concluded? .
A. They are important sources of knowledge workers.
B. Fees that they charge for each applicant they place are usually in line with state law.
C. Market conditions determine who pay the fees.
D. No private agencies will offer temporary help service and provide secretarial, clerical, or semiskilled labor on a short term basis.
5. This passage might be extracted from the paper about .
D. performance evaluation
1.D 2.C 3.B 4.D 5.A
1. Behavior modeling
2. Compensable factors
3. Electronic performance support system (EPSS)
5. Internship programs
6. Job classification system
8. On-the-job training(OJT)
9. Peer appraisal
10. Psychological contract
1. 行为模拟 2. 报酬要素 3. 电子绩效支持系统 4. 反馈 5. 实习计划 6. 工作分类法 7. 调解 8. 在职培训 9. 同事评估 10. 心理契约 11. Training 12. Perquisites 13. Job structure 14. Hourly work 15. Career support
A. careers B. arbitration C pay levels
D. apprenticeship E. employment agencies F. alternative
G. benefit package H.recruiting I. contract J. training
1. The quality of a firm’s process had a big impact on what candidates thought of the firm.
2. Private are important sources of clerical, white-collar, and managerial personnel.
3. At Xerox, unionized hourly workers over 55 with 15 years of service and those over 50 with 20 years of service can bid on jobs at lower stress and lower if they desire so.
4. People also leave organizations voluntarily to further their , get more money or move away from the district.
5. Outplacement is about helping redundant employees to find
6. Three types of third-party interventions are used to overcome an impasse: mediation, fact-finding, and .
7. Approximately half of the German youth between the ages of 15-18 are enrolled in programs.
8. Terms of employment tend to be very technical and are governed by a that spells out exactly what each side will do for the other.
9. Salary and tend to be secret, so no one knows what anyone else is receiving.
10. Every year the company selects dozens of junior managers and young employees to attend universities in order to undertake programs, even degree courses.
1.H 2.E 3.C 4.A 5.F 6.B 7.D 8.I 9.G 10.J
1. All of the following are basic skills needed for successful career management except .
A. developing a positive attitude
B. establishing goals
C. adopting the mindset of your superiors
D. putting responsibility for your career in the hands of your supervisor
2. Which training method focuses upon learning at the affective level? .
A. sensitivity training
B. apprenticeship training
C. intercultural motivation
D. multilingual training
3. A total-quality paradigm tends to emphasize which of the following facets of organizational training efforts? .
A. job-related skills
B. cross-functional skills
C. functional, technical skills
D. a narrow range of skills
4. Performance appraisal methods can be broadly classified as either , , or approaches.
A. trait, behavioral, judgmental
B. trait, behavioral, results
C. behavioral, judgmental, results
D. behavioral, judgmental, attitudinal
5. When managers talk about “going global” they have to balance a complicated set of issues that include all of the following except .
A. geographical differences
B. cultural differences
C. legal differences
D. personal differences
6. The selection procedure usually begins with .
A. employment tests
B. a medical examination
C. a supervisory interview
D. completion of an application form
7. It is recommended that a diagnosis of poor employee performance focus on all of the following except .
D. external conditions
8. When employees receive a higher rate of pay for all of their work if production exceeds a standard level of output, under which incentive plan are they working? .
A. differential piece rate
B. standard piece rate
C. exception bonus rate
D. individual rate pay
9. Cultural environment includes all of the following except .
A. education/human capital
C. corporate structure
D. religious beliefs
10. Conducting job analysis is usually the primary responsibility of the .
A. job incumbent
B. line supervisors
C. accounting department
D. HR department
1.D 2.A 3.B 4.B 5.D 6.D 7.B 8.A 9.C 10.D
Many promotable candidates are originally hired through college recruiting. This is therefore an important source of management trainees, as well as of professional and technical employees.
There are two main problems with on-campus recruiting. First, it is relatively expensive and time-consuming for the recruiters. Schedules must be set well in advance, company brochures printed, records of interviews kept, and much recruiting time spent on campus. Second, recruiters themselves are sometimes ineffective, or worse. Some recruiters are unprepared, show little interest in the candidate, and act superior. Many recruiters also don’t effectively screen their student candidates. For example, students’ physical attractiveness often outweighs other more valid traits and skills. Some recruiters also tend to assign females to “female-type” jobs and males to “male-type” jobs. Such findings underscore the need to train recruiters before sending them to the campus.
You have two goals as a campus recruiter. Your main function is screening, which means determining whether a candidate is worthy of further consideration. Exactly which traits you look for will depend on your specific recruiting needs. Traits to assess include motivation, communication skills, education, appearance, and attitude.
While your main function is to find and screen good candidates, your other aim is to attract them to your firm. A sincere and informal attitude, respect for the applicant as an individual, and prompt follow-up letters can help you to sell the employer to the interviewee.
1. College recruiting is an important source of the following people except .
A. management trainees
B. management trainers
C. professional employees
D. technical employees
2. Which of the following isn’t the weakness of college recruiting? .
A. It is relatively expensive.
B. It is relatively time-consuming.
C. It is sometimes ineffective.
D. Its main function is screening.
3. According to the passage, goals of a campus recruiter include the following except .
B. determining whether a candidate is worthy of further consideration
C. printing company brochures
D. attracting candidates to your firm
4. According to the passage, the author might most likely agree that .
A. College recruiting can find and screen many good candidates.
B. There is no problem with college recruiting.
C. It is unnecessary to train recruiters before college recruiting.
D. It isn’t the goal of a campus recruiter to sell the employer to the interviewee.
5. This passage mainly discussed .
A. the problems and goals of college recruiting
B. the problems of college recruiting
C. the goals of college recruiting
D. the methods of college recruiting
1.B 2.D 3.C 4.A 5.A
The managerial grid training as developed by Blake and his colleagues consists of a simple diagnostic framework provided to members to aid them in describing one another's behavior.
The basis philosophy of grid training is that the task of the individual manager is to achieve production through people. In achieving this task, the manager has to show concern both for productivity and people.
Blake suggests that managers can be characterized by their location on a two-dimensional grid, the managerial grid--one axis of which is labeled concern for production and the other concern for people. Each axis is a scale with nine points and so the location of a manager on the grid can be specified by two coordinates. The five principal managerial styles as described in Blake's grid are:
1,1 Improved management--exertion et minimum offer to get done the work required to maintain membership of the organization.
9,1 Task management where a person is high in task efficiency but low in human satisfaction.
9,9 Team management--high task achievement from committed people. Production is achieved by the integration of task and human requirements into a unified system.
A grid seminar is used to teach each participant to see his or her managerial style. Trainees are first familiarized with grid language and theory and then work in groups through a series of exercises and case problems that allow each individual to exhibit management style. This behavior then becomes the object of feedback. Trainees acquire skills in the perception of their own and other people's styles of behavior, and the aim is to move them toward the 9,9 region of the grid.
Grid training consists of a series of seminars intended to develop the application of the message throughout the organization. In this respect, it is a type of organization development "intervention" designed to increase organizational effectiveness rather than to concentrate on the improvement of individual interactive skills.
The grid has sound theoretical foundations, being based on a number of research studies. It recognizes the importance of developing an appropriate management style to obtain results by the effort an commitment of work groups. It has plenty of fact validity--ex-grid trainees usually speak highly of it--but research studies are only partially conclusive on its overall effectiveness.
1. The basis philosophy of the managerial grid training is that .
A. the task of the individual manager is to achieve people through production
B. the task of the individual manager is to achieve production through people
C. the task of the individuals is to achieve production through other people
D. the task of the individual manager is to achieve production through himself(herself)
2. Whih of the following statements on the managerial grid is false? .
A. It is a two-dimensional grid.
B. One axis of it is labeled concern for production and the other concern for people.
C. Each axis is a scale with nine points.
D. The location of a manager on the grid can be specified by two or more coordinates.
3. From the passage, we can draw conclusions on managerial styles as described in Blake's grid except .
A. 1,1 indicates where a person is low in both task efficiency and human satisfaction.
B. 1,9 indicates where a person is is high in task efficiency but low in human satisfaction.
C. 5,5 where a person is middle in both task efficiency and human satisfaction.
D. 9,1 indicates where a person is is high in task efficiency but low in human satisfaction.
4. About a grid seminar, the author would disagree that .
A. A grid seminar is used to teach each participant to see his or her managerial style.
B. Trainees are first familiarized with grid language and theory.
C. Trainees can’t perceive their own style of behavior.
D. The aim is to move trainees toward the 9,9 region of the grid.
5. This passage may be extracted from the paper which studied .
B. performance appraisal
D. HR planning
1.B 2.D 3.B 4.C 5.A
2. Competitive advantage
3. Employee empowerment
4. Formal education programs
5. Internal growth strategy
6. Job progressions
7. Management by objectives, MBO
8. Performance feedback
9. Replacement charts
10. Strategic congruence
1. 学徒制 2. 竞争优势 3. 员工授权 4. 正规教育计划 5. 内部成长战略 6. 工作提升 7. 目标管理8. 绩效反馈 9. 替换表 10. 战略一致性 11. Web-based training 12. Recruitment 13. Pay structure 14. Labor market 15. Bonus
A. profit-sharing B. goals C job satisfaction
D. off-the-job E. skills analysis F. benefit program
G. interviews H. outcomes I. feedback J. mediation
1. Job instruction techniques should be based on and learning theory.
2. Desire can be created by amplifying the job’s interest factors plus extras such as , career development, travel, or similar advantages.
3. Tests, application blanks, and should be a proven part of the employer’s selection process.
4. With a neutral third party tries to assist the principals in reaching agreement.
5. Organizational rewards should be linked to each individual employee’s .
6. The flexible benefits can turn the traditional homogeneous into a motivator.
7. Piece-rate, wage incentive plans, , and lump-sum bonuses are all forms of performance-based compensation.
8. Evaluation is the comparison of objectives with to answer the question of how far the training has achieved its purpose.
9. Case study is an training technique.
10. Coaching should provide motivation, structure, and effective , if the coacher is skilled, dedicated, and able to develop mutual confidence.
1.E 2.C 3.G 4.J 5.B 6.F 7.A 8.H 9.D 10.I
1. The placement of an employee in another job for which the duties, responsibilities, status, and remuneration are approximately equal to those of the previous job is known as a .
C. lateral move
D. job rotation
2. If employees’ pay is based not on the actual amount of time it takes them to complete a job but on a predetermined amount of time for completing the job, which incentive plan are they working under? .
A. piece-rate plan
B. standard hour plan
C. time division plan
D. completion pay system
3. Of the following, the one that would not be considered a chief objective of most benefits programs is .
A. reducing turnover
B. improving employee satisfaction
C. “sidestepping” legal requirements for employee health and safety
D. attracting and motivating employees
4. The term used to refer to the language, religion, values and attitudes, politics, technology, education, and social organization of a nation is .
A. ritual environment
B. general environment
C. cultural environment
D. task environment
5. Which of the following is not a typical method of increasing the power of employees? .
A. job enlargement
D. relying on self-managed teams
6. Which management group has primary responsibility for the development of disciplinary policies and procedures? .
A. the legal department
B. top-level management
C. the HR department
D. middle management
7. Which of the following is not a phase of a system model of training? .
A. needs assessment
B. motivation assessment
C. program implementation
8. Which of the following is not a primary impact that technology has had on HRM? .
A. It has altered the methods of collecting employment information.
B. It has sped up the processing of employment data.
C. It has diminished the role of supervisors in managing employees.
D. It has improved the processes of internal and external communications.
9. A pictorial representation of all organizational jobs along with the numbers of employees currently occupying those jobs and future employment requirements is called .
A. a staffing table
B. an organization chart
C. a skills inventory
D. career planning
10. When determining where training emphasis should be placed, an examination of the goals, resources, and environment of the organization is known as .
A. task analysis
B. organization analysis
C. resource analysis
D. skills analysis
1.B 2.B 3.C 4.C 5.C 6.C 7.B 8.C 9.A 10.B
In collective bargaining, an impasse occurs when the parties are not able to move further toward settlement. An impasse usually occurs because one party is demanding more than the other will offer. Sometimes an impasse can be resolved through a third party, a disinterested person such as a mediator or arbitrator. If the impasse is not resolved in this way, a work stoppage, or strike, may be called by the union to bring pressure to bear on management.
Three types of third-party interventions are used to overcome an impasse: mediation, fact-finding, and arbitration. With mediation a neutral third party tries to assist the principals in reaching agreement,. The mediator usually holds meetings with each party to determine where each stands regarding its position, and then this information is used to find common ground for further bargaining. The mediator is always a go-between. As such, he or she communicates assessments of the likelihood of a strike, the possible settlement packages available, and the like. The mediator does not have the authority to fix a position or make a concession.
In certain situations as in a national emergency dispute where the president of the United States determines that it would be a national emergency for a strike to occur, a fact-finder may be appointed. A fact-finder is a neutral party who studies the issues in a dispute and makes a public recommendation of what a reasonable settlement ought to be. For example, presidential emergency fact-finding boards have successfully resolved impasses in certain critical transportation disputes.
Arbitration is the most definitive type of third-party intervention, since the arbitrator often has the power to determine and dictate the settlement terms. Unlike mediation and fact-finding, arbitration can guarantee a solution to an impasse. With binding arbitration, both parties are committed to accepting the arbitrator’s award. With non-binding arbitration, they are not. Arbitration may also be voluntary or compulsory (in other words, imposed by a government agency). In the United States, voluntary binding arbitration is the most prevalent.
1. Which of the following statements about an impasse in collective bargaining is false? .
A. An impasse occurs when the parties are not able to reach an agreement.
B. An impasse usually occurs when one party is demanding more than the other will offer.
C. An impasse can be resolved through a mediator or arbitrator.
D. If the impasse is not resolved, the union can’t bring pressure to bear on management.
2. The types of third-party interventions which can be used to overcome an impasse include the following except .
3. From this passage, we can’t draw a conclusion on the mediator that .
A. The mediator tries to assist the principals in reaching agreement.
B. The mediator usually holds meetings with each party to determine where each stands regarding its position.
C. The mediator is always a go-between.
D. The mediator has the authority to fix a position or make a concession.
4. According to the passage, we can infer that .
A. The president of the United States has the right to determine that a national emergency dispute would be a national emergency for a strike to occur.
B. The arbitrator has no right to determine and dictate the settlement terms.
C. Mediation and fact-finding can also ensure a solution to an impasse.
D. In the United States, compulsory binding arbitration is the most popular.
5. The best title for the passage might be .
A. third-party interventions
C. impasse and third-party interventions
D. arbitration and mediation
1.D 2.C 3.D 4.A 5.C
Many employers today are supplementing their permanent employee base by hiring contingent workers. Also defined as temporary workers, part-time workers, and just-in-time employees, the contingent work force is big and growing and is broadly defined as workers who don’t have permanent jobs.
Just how big is the contingent work force? One way to answer that is to note that in 1993, part-time workers (those employed for less than 35 hours per week) numbered 21 million, or about 17% of the U.S. labor force. Slicing the numbers another way, in 1993 there were 1.7 million people working in the temporary help industry (for temporary help firms like Manpower, Inc. and Kelly Services), up from 732,000 in 1985. Temporary jobs represented 20% of all the new jobs created in the United States between 1991and 1993.
Contingent staffing owes its growing popularity to several factors. Historically, employers have always used “temps” to fill in for the days or weeks that permanent employees were out sick or on vacation. Increasingly, however, a desire for ever-higher productivity probably explains its growing popularity. In general, as one expert puts it, “productivity is measured in terms of output per hour paid for”… and “if employees are paid only when they’re working, as contingent workers are, overall productivity increases.” Employers also find that by tapping temporary help agencies, they can save the time and expense of personally recruiting and training new workers, as well as the expenses involved in personnel documentation (such as filing payroll taxes and maintaining absence records). As a result, the contingent work force is no longer limited to clerical or maintenance staff: in one recent year almost 100, 000 people found temporary work in engineering, science, or management support occupations, for instance. In fact, growing numbers of firms use temporary workers such as engineers and other professionals to carry out engineering projects, to staff hospitals to meet fluctuating patient loads, and to serve as short-term chief financial officers, for instance.
1. Which of the following isn’t contingent workers? .
A. temporary workers
B. part-time workers
C. permanent employees
D. just-in-time employees
2. About the number or percentage of contingent workers in the U.S. in 1993, which of the following is false? .
A. 21 million
B. 17% of the U.S. labor force
C. Slicing the numbers another way, there were 1.7 million
D. 20% of employees who worked for all the new jobs
3. Contingent workers are now growing popular because of the following factors except .
A. Employers desire for ever-higher productivity.
B. Employers want to fill in for the days or weeks that permanent employees are on vacation.
C. Employers can save the time and expense of personally recruiting and training new workers.
D. Employers can save the expenses involved in filing payroll taxes and maintaining absence records.
4. According to the passage, there are several job areas for contingent workers except .
A. permanent jobs
D. management support occupations
5. This passage might be extracted from the paper about .
1.C 2.D 3.B 4.A 5.B
2. Cultural environment
3. Factor comparison system
4. Job posting and bidding
5. Leaderless group discussion
7. Point system
8. Situational interview
9. Strategic human resource management (SHRM)
10. Skill-based pay
1. 联合抵制 2. 文化环境 3. 因素比较法 4. 工作张贴和申请 5. 无领导小组讨论法 6. 外包7. 积分法 8. 情景面试 9. 战略性人力资源管理 10. 技能工资11. Task analysis 12. Performance management 13. Job satisfaction 14. Globalization 15. Arbitrary
A. skills B. job description C interaction
D. management E. role playing F. work force
G. discipline H. rewards I. task J. training
1. Developing a high-trust organization means creating trust between and employees.
2. Retaining knowledge workers is a matter of providing a supportive workplace environment and motivating them through both tangible and intangible .
3. Increased diversity will place tremendous demands on the HR management function.
4. Writing and job specification based on input from department supervisor is the responsibility of HR department.
5. Supervisors should make sure employees are guaranteed fair treatment as it relates to , dismissal and job security.
6. It is important to evaluate in order to assess its effectiveness in producing the learning outcomes.
7. Job rotation can be an inefficient and frustrating method of acquiring additional knowledge and unless it is carefully planned and controlled.
8. In the participants act out a situation by assuming the roles of the characters involved.
9. The basis philosophy of managerial grid training is that the of the individual manager is to achieve production through people.
10. Interactive skills training is defined by Rackham as: “Any form of training which aims to increase the effectiveness of an individual's with others.”
1.D 2.H 3.F 4.B 5.G 6.J 7.A 8.E 9.I 10.C
1. An example of a qualitative approach to demand forecasting is .
A. trend analysis
B. the Delphi technique
C. multiple predictive models
2. Services that are offered to employees who are being transferred to different locations are known as .
A. outplacement services
B. relocation services
C. transfer services
D. adjustment services
3. Self- appraisals are best for .
A. administrative purposes
B. developmental purposes
C. promotional purposes
D. regulatory purposes
4. The point system permits jobs to be evaluated on the basis of elements known as .
A. description factors
B. compensable factors
C. skill factors
D. knowledge factors
5. Sometimes organizations provide services to terminated employees that help them bridge the gap between their old position and a new job. These services are known as .
A. downsizing programs
B. “headhunting” assistance programs
C. outplacement assistance
D. employee assistance programs(EAPs)
6. Consultation provided by HR staff should not .
A. be based on managerial expertise
B. be based on technical expertise
C. help managers or supervisors make firm decisions
D. conflict with the goals of the managers or supervisors seeking assistance
7. The examination of the attitudes and activities of a company’s workforce refers to .
A. environmental scanning
B. performing a trend analysis
C. performing a cultural audit
D. behavioral modeling
8. When a combination salary and commission plan is used to compensate sales employees, the percentage of cash compensation paid in commission is called .
A. a bonus
B. a lump-sum bonus
C. an incentive
9. The two principal criteria for determining promotions are .
A. seniority and salary
B. knowledge and skills
C. seniority and knowledge
D. merit and seniority
10. When the multinational corporation sends employees from its home country, these employees are referred to as .
A. host-country nationals
B. third-country nationals
C. international managers
1.B 2.B 3.B 4.B 5.C 6.D 7.C 8.C 9.D 10.D
Japanese management gives a great deal of attention to orientation and training, which is particularly true in the case of regular employees. Pre-employment education generally starts immediately after the person is chosen. The purpose of the program is to (a) familiarize the student with the company; (b) monitor the person’s activities; (c) make the student comfortable with the company; (d) answer questions the person might have; and (e) provide the new hirers with any basic skills training the company feels they require.
The appraisal and compensation system is long-term in orientation and is based on rewarding people for doing a good job over an extended period of time. In the United States employees commonly receive an annual appraisal that indicates whether or not they are doing a good job and, if not, provides feedback related to improving performance or seeking employment elsewhere. In Japan the initial appraisal is typically given at the end of a 7-10 year period. At this point the person learns whether or not he or she is going to be promoted up the ranks of management or not. Those who fail this first major evaluation know that their chances of making the top management ranks are virtually nil.
Compensation in Japan used to be based heavily on seniority, but today merit is becoming more important. In many industries the annual raise is in the 2-4 percent range and often is based heavily on merit factors such as attitude, ability, and cooperativeness. Another feature that distinguishes the Japanese system form many others is the semiannual bonus or wage allowance. This bonus is separate from the annual wage increase and, usually without exception, is paid every year regardless of the state of the economy. The bonus is typically equivalent to 5-6 months’ salary and is paid in midsummer and at the end of the year. Other forms of compensation include housing allowances, daily living support for transportation, meals, uniforms, health care, and cultural and recreational benefits.
1. The purposes of pre-employment education in Japan don’t include .
A. familiarizing the student with the company
B. monitor the person’s activities
C. make the student comfortable with the company
D. provide the new hirers with any knowledge and skills
2. The appraisal and compensation system in Japan is based on .
A. rewarding people for doing a good job over an extended period of time
B. rewarding people for doing a good job over a year
C. rewarding people for doing any job over a long time
D. rewarding people for doing any job over a year
3. In Japan the initial appraisal is typically given at the end of a
4. About compensation in Japan, the author would disagree that .
A. Compensation in Japan are based heavily on merit today.
B. Merit factors include attitude, ability, and cooperativeness.
C. The main feature that distinguishes the Japanese system form many others is the semiannual bonus or wage allowance.
D. The semiannual bonus equals to 5-6 months’ salary.
5. From this passage, we can’t conclude that .
A. In Japan, working for a long time in a company is beneficial to employees.
B. The orientation of appraisal and compensation system in Japan is different from the one in the United States.
C. In the United States, employees who commonly receive an annual appraisal can’t know whether or not they are doing a good job.
D. Employees in Japan may get housing allowances, daily living support for transportation, meals, uniforms, health care, and cultural and recreational benefits.
1.D 2.A 3.B 4.C 5.C
Recruiting is important, because the more applicants you have the more selective you can be in your hiring. If only two candidates apply for two openings, you may have little choice but to hire them. But if 10 or 20 applicants appear, then you can employ techniques like interviews and tests to screen out all but the best.
Some employers use a recruiting yield pyramid to calculate the number of applicants they must generate to hire the required number of new employees. In figure 1, the company knows 50 new entry-level accountants must be hired next year. From experience, the firm also knows that the ratio of offers made to actual new hires is 2 to 1; about half the people to whom offers are made accept. Similarly, the firm knows that the ratio of candidates interviewed to offers made is 3 to 2, while the ratio of candidates invited for interviews to candidates actually interviewed has been 4 to 3. Finally, the firm knows that the ratio of new leads generated to candidates actually invited has been 6 to 1; in other words, of six leads that come in from the firm’s advertising college recruiting, and other recruiting efforts, one applicant in six typically is invited to come for an interview. Given these ratios, the firm knows it must generate 1200 leads to be able to invite 200 viable candidates to its offices for interviews. The firm will then get to interview about 150 of those invited, and from these it will make 100 offers. Of those 100 offers, half (or 50 new CPAs) will be hired.
Recruiting Yield Pyramid
Candidates interviewed (3:2)
The quality of a firm’s recruiting process had a big impact on what candidates thought of the firm. For example, when asked after the initial job interview why they thought a particular company might be a good fit, all 41 mentioned the nature of the job; however, 12 also mentioned the impression made by the recruiters themselves and 9 said the comments of friends and acquaintances affected their impressions. Unfortunately, the reverse was also true. When asked why they judged some firms as bad fits, 39 mentioned the nature of the job, but 23 said they’d been turned off by recruiters. For example, some were dressed sloppily; others were “barely literate”; some were rude; and some made offensively sexist comments.
1. A recruiting yield pyramid might include the following except .
A. Offers made
B. Candidates rewarded
C. Candidates interviewed
D. Leads generated
2. According to the recruiting yield pyramid, if the ratio of new leads generated to candidates actually invited is 5 to 1, the ratio of candidates invited for interviews to candidates actually interviewed is 2 to 1, and the firm want to interview about 100 of those invited, then the firm must generate leads.
3. According to the recruiting yield pyramid, if the ratio of offers made to actual new hires is 3 to 2, the ratio of candidates interviewed to offers made is 5 to 3, and the firm had interviewed 500, then it can hire .
4. From the passage, we can infer that .
A. If only two candidates apply for two openings, you can employ techniques like interviews and tests.
B. The quality of a firm’s recruiting process can influence what candidates thought of the firm.
C. The more applicants you have, the worse your recruitment might become.
D. A recruiting yield pyramid can’t be used to calculate the number of applicants they must generate to hire the required number of new employees.
5. The best title for this passage might be .
A. introduction of recruiting
B. recruiting yield pyramid
C. the quality of recruiting process
D. significance of recruiting
1.B 2.C 3.D 4.B 5.A
2. Downward move
3. Gain sharing plans
4. Internal analysis
5. Job ranking system
6. Merit guideline
7. Peer appraisal
9. Role ambiguity
10. Team leader training
1. 标杆 2. 降级 3. 收益分享计划 4. 内部分析 5. 工作重要性排序法 6. 绩效指南 7. 同事评估 8. 流程再造9. 角色模糊 10. 团队领导培训 11. Self-appraisal 12. Promotion 13. Learning organization14. Feedback 15. Bonus
A. workforce B. absenteeism C orientation
D. benefit E. questionnaire F. downsizing
G. perquisites H. input I. performance J. satisfaction
1. The appraisal and compensation system is long-term in and is based on rewarding people for doing a good job over an extended period of time.
2. The organization will provide employees with indirect compensations insurance, pay for holidays and vacations, services, and .
3. Individuals should perceive a strong relationship between their
and the rewards they receive if motivation is to be maximized.
4. Flexible benefits allow employees to pick and choose from among a menu of options.
5. Satisfied and committed employees have lower rates of turnover and .
6. Business process re-engineering techniques are deployed as instruments for .
7. A forecast is needed of the amount by which the has to be reduced and the likely losses through employee turnover.
8. 360-degree feedback recognizes the complexity of management and the value of from various sources.
9. 360-degree feedback is most likely to be successful when items covered in the can be related to actual events experienced by the individual.
10. When pay is seen as fair based on job demands, individual skill level, and community pay standards, is likely to result.
1.C 2.G 3.I 4.D 5.B 6.F 7.A 8.H 9.E 10.J
1. Executives or managers who coach, advise, and encourage employees of lesser rank are called .
D. role models
2. Objectives accomplished through job analysis include all of the following except .
A. establishing the job-relatedness of selection requirements
B. determining the relative worth of a job
C. eliminating discrepancies between internal wage rates and market rates
D. proving criteria for evaluating the performance of an employee
3. Staffing the organization, designing jobs and teams, developing skillful employees, identifying approaches for improving employee performance, and other “HRM” issues are duties typically reserved for .
A. HR managers
B. line managers
C. HR and line managers
D. top executives
4. 360-degree feedback might be used for the following except .
A. personal development
5. An employer wishing to set up the job classification system of job evaluation would have to .
A. establish a point plan to evaluate all jobs
B. rank jobs according to the beliefs of committee members
C. describe job grades with increasing amount of responsibility, skill, knowledge, or ability
D. evaluate jobs with the use of a job evaluation scale
6. Which of the following isn’t a form of performance-based compensation? .
C. minimum wage
D. lump-sum bonuses
7. The performance measures that might be used for performance-based compensation include the following except .
A. individual work time
B. departmental productivity
C. unit profitability
D. the overall organization’s profitability
8. Coaching is a technique that can be used to develop individual skills, knowledge, and attitudes.
C. web-based training
9. An organization wishing to establish greater job-staffing flexibility would likely use which pay system? .
A. straight pay
B. skill-based pay
C. incentive pay
D. two-tier pay
10. Human capital of a firm include the following except .
A. the knowledge of a firm’s workers
B. skills of a firm’s workers
C. the expertise of a firm’s workers
D. the behavior of a firm’s workers
1.C 2.C 3.C 4.D 5.C 6.C 7.A 8.A 9.B 10.D
Bargaining in good faith is the cornerstone of effective labor management relations. It means that both parties communicate and negotiate. It means that proposals are matched with counterproposals and that both parties make every reasonable effort to arrive at an agreement. It does not mean that either party is compelled to agree to a proposal. Nor does it require that either party make any specific concessions.
When is bargaining not in good faith? As interpreted by the NLRB and the courts, a violation of the requirement for good faith bargaining may include the following:
1. Surface bargaining. This involves merely going through the motions of bargaining without any real intention of completing a formal agreement.
2. Concession. Although no one is required to make a concession, the court’s and NLRB’s definitions of good faith suggest that a willingness to compromise is an essential ingredient in good faith bargaining.
3. Proposals and demands. The NLRB considers the advancement of proposals as a positive factor in determining overall good faith.
4. Dilatory tactics. The law requires that the parties meet and “confer at reasonable times and intervals”. Obviously, refusal to meet at all with the union does not satisfy the positive duty imposed on the employer.
5. Imposing conditions. Attempts to impose conditions that are so onerous or unreasonable as to indicate bad faith will be scrutinized by the board.
6. Unilateral changes in conditions. This is viewed as a strong indication that the employer is not bargaining with the required intent of reaching an agreement.
7. Bypassing the representative. An employer violates its duty to bargain when it refuses to negotiate with the union representative. The duty of management to bargain in good faith involves, at a minimum, recognition that this statutory representative is the one with whom the employer must deal in conducting bargaining negotiations.
8. Commission of unfair labor practices during negotiations. Such practices may reflect poorly upon the good faith of the guilty party.
9. Providing information. Information must be supplied to the union, upon request, to enable it to understand and intelligently discuss the issues raised in bargaining.
10. Bargaining items. Refusal to bargain on a mandatory item (one must bargain over these) or insistence on a permissive item (one may bargain over these) is usually viewed as bad faith bargaining..
1. Bargaining in good faith does not mean that .
A. both parties communicate and negotiate
B. proposals are in line with counterproposals
C. both parties make great effort to reach an agreement
D. either party must agree to a proposal
2. According to the interpretion of the NLRB and the courts, bargaining may be in good faith when .
A. Both parties have no real intention of completing a formal agreement.
B. Both parties are willing to compromise.
C. Employers refuse to meet with the union.
D. Both parties attempt to impose unreasonable conditions.
3. Which of the following isn’t a positive factor in determining overall good faith? .
A. a willingness to compromise
B. the advancement of proposals
C. unilateral changes in conditions
D. providing information
4. From this passage, we can conclude that .
A. It isn’t mandatory to meet and “confer at reasonable times and intervals” for both parties .
B. Employers can refuse to negotiate with the union representative in order to bargain in good faith.
C. Commission of unfair labor practices during negotiations may reflect little good faith of the guilty party.
D. Insistence on a permissive item can bring bargaining in good faith.
5. The best title for the passage might be .
A. what is and when is not bargaining in good faith
B. what is bargaining in good faith
C. when is not bargaining in good faith
D. how to bargain in good faith
1.D 2.B 3.C 4.C 5.A
Fewer 18- to 25-year-olds are entering the work force; this has caused many employers to look into “harnessing America’s gray power”. Is it practical in terms of productivity to keep older workers on? The answer seems unequivocably to be “yes”. Age-related changes in physical ability, cognitive performance, and personality have little effect on worker’s output except in the most physically demanding tasks. Similarly , creative and intellectual achievements do not decline with age and absenteeism drops as age increases. Older workers also usually display more company loyalty than youthful workers, tend to be more satisfied with their jobs and supervision, and can be trained or retrained as effectively as anyone.
Recruiting and attracting older workers generally requires a comprehensive HR retiree effort before the recruiting begins. The aim is to make the company an attractive place in which the older worker can work. Specifically:
Examine your personnel policies. Check to make sure policies and procedures do not discourage recruitment of seniors or encourage valuable older people to leave.
Develop flexible work options. These include part-time, shorter-than-30-hour workweeks, consulting or seasonal work, reduced hours with reduced pay, and flextime.
Create or redesign suitable jobs. At Xerox, unionized hourly workers over 55 with 15 years of service and those over 50 with 20 years of service can bid on jobs at lower stress and lower pay levels if they so desire.
Offer or redesign suitable jobs. Allowing employees to pick and choose among benefit options can be attractive to older as well as younger employees.
As one expert puts it, to recruit older workers, the message must be tailored to their way of thinking. Appealing to job qualities they value will attract attention. These include flexible hours, flexible benefits, autonomy, opportunity to meet new friends, and working with people their own age. You might also stress that you value their maturity and experience.
1. Which of the age-related changes will affect worker’s output except in the most physically demanding tasks? .
A. physical ability
B. cognitive performance
D. company loyalty
2. “Harnessing America’s gray power,” means that .
A. keeping older workers on
B. recruiting 18- to 25-year-olds
C. attracting minorities
D. encouraging women to enter the work force
3. In order to make the company an attractive place in which the older worker can work, HR staff should do the following except .
A. examine the personnel policies
B. develop flexible work options
C. reward at lower pay levels
D. offer or redesign suitable jobs
4. According to the passage, which of the following isn’t a flexible work option? .
A. shorter-than-30-hour workweeks
C. seasonal work
D. reduced hours with reduced pay
5. From this passage, we can infer that .
A. In America, there is no deficit of work force.
B. Absenteeism is positively related to ages.
C. Flexible work options can be attractive to older workers.
D. To recruit older workers, the message needn’t be in accordance with their way of thinking.
1.D 2.A 3.C 4.B 5.C